Characterization of soils in hot semi-arid agro-ecological region of India: A case study of Singhanhalli-Bogur microwatershed in northern transition zone of Karnataka

AshEse Journal of Agricultural Science                                                                  

Vol. 1(6), pp. 054-070, June,

2015 ISSN: 2059-1225

© 2015 AshEse Visionary Limited 

http://ashese.co.uk/agricultural-science

 

Full Length Research Paper

Denis Magnus Ken Amara1*, Sheikh Dyphan Abass Massaquoi2 and Parameshgouda L. Patil3    
1Department of Soil Science, School of Agriculture, Njala University, Njala Campus, Sierra Leone. 2Department of Agricultural Economics, School of Social Sciences, Njala University, Njala Campus, Sierra Leone. 3Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 580005, Karnataka, India.  
*Corresponding author. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. Tel: +23279905400, +23299463196.  
Received April, 2015; Accepted May, 2015  
 
The present study was undertaken to characterize soils in Singhanhalli-Bogur microwatershed located in the hot Semi-arid Agro-ecological region of India in the northern transition zone of Karnataka. Horizon-wise soil samples were collected from twenty pedon location and analysed for important physical and chemical properties. The study revealed that the distribution of soil separates varied with depth in most of the horizons whereas % coarse fragments increased with depth. The clay content was higher in the black soils than red soils. All pedons exhibited an irregular trend in silt content whereas surface horizons recorded higher sand content than sub-surface horizons. The bulk density increased with depth with black soils recording higher bulk densities than red soils. In addition, surface horizons recorded lower bulk densities that sub-surface horizons. The field capacity and water holding capacity of the black soils was higher than the red soils but however, the red soils showed higher porosities than the black soils. The pH was slightly acidic to alkaline and increased with depth. The soils were non-saline and all pedons exhibited an irregular trend in electrical conductivity. The organic carbon ranged from low to high whereas in most pedons the CaCO3 followed an irregular trend with the black soils showing higher CaCO3 content than the red soils. The distribution exchangeable bases on the exchange complex was in the order of Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+. The black soil pedons recorded higher CEC and per cent base saturation than the red soil pedons.   
 
Key words: Singhanhalli-Bogur, soil characterization, microwatershed, Karnataka, soil resource inventory.  
 

Assessment of spatial variability of soil properties in hot semi- arid northern transition zone of India through remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS)

AshEse Journal of Agricultural Science

Vol. 1(6), pp. 043-053, June, 2015

ISSN: 2059-1225

© 2015 AshEse Visionary Limited 

http://ashese.co.uk/agricultural-science

 

Full Length Research Paper 

Denis Magnus Ken Amara1*, Sheikh Dyphan Abass Massaquoi2 and Parameshgouda L Patil3  
1Department of Soil Science, School of Agriculture, Njala University, Njala Campus, Sierra Leone. 2Department of Agricultural Economics, School of Social Sciences, Njala University, Njala Campus, Sierra Leone. 3Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 580005, Karnataka, India.  
*Corresponding author. E-mail: E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. Tel: +23279905400   
Received April, 2015; Accepted 20 May, 2015  
 
Knowledge of spatial variability in soil fertility is important for site specific nutrient management. In the present study, spatial variability in properties that influence soil fertility such as soil organic carbon, available N, available P2O5 and available K2O in 133 surface samples (comprising of 108 soil samples from red soils and 25 soil samples from black soils) from farmers' fields in Singhanhalli-Bogur microwatershed of Dharwad taluk in Dharwad district of Karnataka (India) were quantified. Based on the ratings of soil nutrients, the respective thematic maps (soil fertility maps) were prepared using Arc Map 10.1 with spatial analyst function of Arc GIS software through spline interpolation method. Soils were non-gravelly to gravelly with the red soils showing high gravel content (2.0 to 60.6%) than black soils (2.6 to 15.3%). The pH of the study area was slightly acidic to alkaline with normal electrical conductivity. The red soils were slightly acidic to alkaline with pH of 5.2 to 8.3 while the black soils were neutral to alkaline with pH of 6.4 to 8.6. The available N, P, K and S varied from low to medium, with majority of samples showing low values. The available Mn status of soils was sufficient (2.8 to 36.1 ppm for black soils and 0.2 to 88.7 ppm for red soils). The available iron was deficient to excess (0.5 to 7.1 ppm and 0.5 to 3.0 ppm for red and black soils, respectively), with majority of the samples deficient to sufficient in iron. Only 16.5 per cent of the study area was found to contain excess Fe. The available Zn and Cu was deficient to sufficient but major portion of the study area showed deficiency of available zinc and copper. The exchangeable Ca was moderate to high (3.2 to 28.6 cmol (p+) kg-1 and 8.6 to 35.8 cmol (p+) kg-1 for red and black soils respectively) but major portion of the study area was sufficient in exchangeable Ca while exchangeable Mg ranged from low to medium (1.9 to 16.5 cmol(p+) kg-1 and 6.0 to 23.2 cmol(p+) kg-1 for red and black soils respectively) . The observed spatial variability in various soil properties that influence soil fertility will help farmers in making crop management decisions that would help to increase crop productivity and improve farmers’ livelihood.  
Key words: Spatial variability, soil properties, India, remote sensing, geographic information system. 

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